4 years ago, Posted by: satekso

Mengenal Transpor elektron

Transpor elektron adalah proses terakhir dari respirasi aerob, dimana akan dihasilkan ATP dari NADH dan FADH2 hasil dari glikolisis, dekarboksilasi oksidatif, dan siklus krebs. Transpor elektron terjadi di membran dalam mitokondria, di membran ini terdapat bagian-bagian penting yang berperan sebagai penerima elekton yaitu. kompleks protein I, kompleks protein II, kompleks protein III, kompleks protein IV, ubiquinon, dan sitokrom c. Proses ini disebut juga dengan fosforilasi oksidatif dan ditemukan pada tahun 1948 oleh Eugene Kennedy dan Albert Lehninger.

secara singkat transpor elektron untuk NADH sebagai berikut :

  • Molekul NADH akan melepaskan elektronnya dan ditangkap kompleks protein I kemudian berpindah menuju ubiquinon.
  • Saat elektron meninggalkan kompleks protein I, menyebabkan sebuah H+ dikeluarkan menuju ruang antar membran.
  • Dari ubiquinon, elektron akan menuju kompleks protein III dan kemudian menuju sitokrom c.
  • Saat elektron meninggalkan kompleks protein III, sebuah H+ juga akan dikeluarkan menuju ruang antar membran.
  • Dari sitokrom c elektron akan menuju kompleks sitokrom IV yang kemudian akan menuju penerima elektron terakhir yaitu O2.
  • Saat elektron meninggalkan kompleks protein IV menyebabkan sebuah H+ juga dikeluarkan menuju ruang antar membran.
  • O2 setelah menerima elektron akan mengikat H+ dan membentuk H2O.
  • Tiga H+ yang telah dikeluarkan tadi akan masuk kembali melalui enzim ATP sintase yang berada di membran tersebut. 
  • Setiap H+ yang  masuk melalui ATP sintase juga akan dihasilkan 1 molekul ATP.
  • Jadi total dari satu NADH akan dihasilkan 3 ATP.


Dan proses transpor elektron untuk molekul FADH2 sebagai berikut :

  • Molekul FADH2 akan melepaskan elektronnya dan ditangkap kompleks protein II kemudian berpindah menuju ubiquinon, namun  pada tahap ini tidak menyebabkan dikeluarkannya H+.
  • Kemudian elektron akan meninggalkan ubiquinon dan menuju kompleks protein III, sitokrom C, dan kompleks protein IV.
  • Saat elektron melewati kompleks protein III dan IV masing-masing menyebabkan dikeluarkannya molekul H+.
  • Jadi hanya 2 H+ yang dikeluarkan hingga nantinya masuk kembali melalui ATP sintase dan terbentuk 2 ATP.
  • Di akhir cerita elektron juga akan ditangkap oleh O2 menghasilkan H2O.


Dari kedua proses diatas NADH menghasilkan 3 molekul ATP sedangkan FADH2 menghasilkan 2 molekul ATP. Jadi, dalam transpor elektron dihasilkan kira-kira 34 ATP. Ditambah dari hasil glikolisis dan siklus Krebs, maka secara keseluruhan reaksi respirasi seluler menghasilkan total 38 ATP dari satu molekul glukosa. Akan tetapi, karena dibutuhkan 2 ATP untuk melakukan transpor aktif, maka hasil bersih dari setiap respirasi seluler adalah 36 ATP.


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